Accounting policies

The consolidated and separate financial statements (financial statements) have been prepared in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), the interpretations adopted by the International Accounting Standards Board and South African interpretations of Statements of Generally Accepted
Accounting Practice.

1. Basis of preparation

The financial statements are prepared on the historical cost basis except that derivative financial instruments, financial instruments held-for-trading and financial instruments classified as available-for-sale are stated at their fair value.

Non-current assets and disposal Group’s held-for-sale are stated at the lower of carrying amount and fair value less costs to sell.

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with IFRS requires management to make judgements, estimates and assumptions that affect the application of policies and reported amounts of assets and liabilities, income and expenses. Although estimates and associated assumptions are based on historical experience and various other factors that are believed to be reasonable under the circumstances (the results of which form the basis of making the judgements about carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources), the actual outcome may differ from these estimates.

The estimates and underlying assumptions are reviewed on an ongoing basis. Revisions to accounting estimates are recognised in the period in which the estimate is revised, if the revision affects only that period, or in the period of the revision and future periods if the revision affects both current and future periods.

Judgements made in the application of IFRS that have had an effect on the financial statements and estimates with a risk of adjustment in the next year are discussed in note 39.

The accounting policies have been applied consistently to all periods presented in these financial statements. The financial statements are presented in South African rand, which is the Group’s functional currency. All financial information has been rounded to the nearest thousand unless stated otherwise.

2. Adoption of new and revised accounting standards

The Group has adopted the following new and modified standards and interpretations, in response to changes to IFRS: IAS 39 (revised) – Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement, IAS 24 (revised) – Related Party Disclosure, IAS 32 (revised) – Financial Instruments: Presentation, IFRIC 14 – The Limit on a Defined Benefit Asset, Minimum Funding Requirements and their Interaction, and IFRIC 19 – Extinguishing Financial Liabilities with Equity Instruments. The adoption of the new and modified standards and interpretations has had no impact on the Group’s results.

3. Basis of consolidation

The consolidated financial statements include the financial statements of the Company and its subsidiaries. Subsidiaries are entities controlled by the Company. Control exists when the Company has the power, directly or indirectly, to govern the financial and operating policies of an entity so as to obtain benefits from its activities. In assessing control, potential voting rights that presently are exercisable or convertible are taken into account. Operating results of businesses acquired or disposed of during the year are included from or to the effective date of acquisition or disposal, being the date that control commences until the date control ceases. The assets and liabilities of companies acquired are assessed and included in the statement of financial position at their estimated fair values to the Group at acquisition date.

Any increases and decreases in ownership interests in subsidiaries without a change in control are recognised as equity transactions in the Group financial statements. Accordingly, any premiums or discounts on subsequent purchases of equity instruments from, or sales of equity instruments to non-controlling shareholders are recognised directly in the equity of the Group.

Transaction costs that the Group incurs with respect to an acquisition of a business are expensed as incurred.

Inter-group transactions and balances are eliminated on consolidation. Unrealised gains arising from transactions with jointly controlled entities and equity accounted associates are eliminated to the extent of the Group’s interest in the entity. Unrealised losses are eliminated in the same way as unrealised gains, but only to the extent that there is no evidence of impairment.

The Company carries its investments in subsidiaries at cost less accumulated impairment losses.

4. Revenue

Revenue comprises amounts invoiced to customers for goods and services and includes finance charges, insurance premiums, gross billings, and commissions related to clearing and forwarding transactions and excludes value added tax. Revenue is net of returns and allowances, trade discounts and volume rebates. Total revenue also includes dividends received and finance income.

5. Revenue recognition

The sale of goods is recognised when significant risks and rewards of ownership of the goods are transferred to the buyer, recovery of the consideration is considered probable, the associated costs and possible return of goods can be estimated reliably, and there is no continuing management involvement with the goods.

Revenue from services rendered is recognised in the income statement in proportion to the stage of completion of the transaction at the statement of financial position date. The stage of completion is assessed by reference to the terms of the contracts.

Revenue relating to banking activities consists primarily of margins earned on the purchase and sale of foreign exchange products and general commissions and transaction fees and is recognised when the services are provided. Net profits or losses on the revaluation of foreign currency denominated assets and liabilities are also included in revenue.

In the event that a profit or loss arises from full maintenance motor contracts, this is recognised on termination of individual contracts after taking cognisance of any additional costs required. Provision is made for known losses during the contract period on an individual contract basis.

Insurance premiums are stated before deducting reinsurance and commission. Gross premiums are accounted for when they become due.

Finance income comprises interest receivable on funds invested and dividend income on preference shares.

Interest is recognised on an accrual basis, taking account of the principal outstanding and the effective rate over the period to maturity, when it is determined that such income will accrue to the Group.

Dividends are recognised when the right to receive payment is established.

6. Non-current assets held-for-sale and discontinued operations

Non-current assets (or disposal groups comprising assets and liabilities) that are expected to be recovered primarily through sale rather than through continuing use are classified as held-for-sale and are carried at the lower of carrying value and fair value less cost to sell. Immediately before classification as assets held-for-sale, the measurement of the assets (and all assets and liabilities in a disposal group) is determined in accordance with applicable IFRS. Then, on initial classification as assets held-for-sale, non-current assets and disposal groups are recognised at the lower of the carrying amounts and fair value less costs to sell. Any impairment loss on a disposal group is first allocated to goodwill, and then to remaining assets and liabilities on a pro rata basis, except that no loss is allocated to inventories, financial assets, deferred tax assets, and employee benefit assets, which continue to be measured in accordance with the Group’s accounting policies. Impairment losses on initial classification as held-for-sale and subsequent gains orlosses on remeasurement are recognised in the income statement. Gains are not recognised in excess of any cumulative impairment loss.

A discontinued operation results from the sale or abandonment of an operation that represents a separate major line of business or geographical area of operations and of which the assets, net profit or loss and activities can be distinguished physically, operationally and for financial reporting purposes. A subsidiary acquired exclusively with the view to resale is also classified as a discontinued operation. Classification as a discontinued operation occurs upon disposal or when the operation meets the criteria to be classified as held-for-sale, if earlier. When an operation is classified as a discontinued operation, the comparative income statement is restated as if the operation had been discontinued from the start of the comparative period.

7. Distributions to shareholders

Distributions to shareholders are accounted for once they have been approved by the board of directors.

8. Finance income and charges

Finance charges comprise interest payable on borrowings calculated using the effective interest rate method. The interest expense component of finance lease payments is recognised in the income statement using the effective interest rate method.


Next page >>